Absorption chillers are one of the coolant equipment in air conditioning systems in buildings, which have a much lower power consumption than compact condensers but ...
Absorption chillers are one of the coolant equipment in air conditioning systems in buildings, which have a much lower power consumption than compact condensers but require a lot of thermal energy (such as hot water, warm water, steam, direct flame).
This thermal energy causes the water of lithium bromide solution to evaporate in order to create a coolant in the absorption chiller generator. The resulting steam enters the condenser and discharges into the evaporator due to contact with the water coils of the cooling tower.
Due to the vacuum (pressure of 0.01 atm) in the evaporator, evaporated distilled water absorbs the air from the coils of the air-conditioning system (usually water) as a result of its latent heat. The resulting water from this process is absorbed by lithium bromide in the absorber, and this diluted lithium bromide is introduced into the generator by a solution pump. Dry lithium bromide is also returned to the absorber to absorb water and dilute in the generator.
The refrigerant pump in the absorption chiller is responsible for transferring water from the evaporator floor to the fluid-carrying tubes of the air-conditioning system.
In general, in addition to computing parameters such as geographical conditions (ambient temperature) and outside summer design temperature, altitude, relative air humidity, type of building use (inside design temperature), type of materials used, and the implementation of the facade of the building, the direction of the building relative to the angle of sunshine, the number of floors and the level of building infrastructure, the number of small and large electric equipment inside the building, etc., plant experts consider the amount of cold water required and the confidence coefficient in the chiller function to calculate the required absorption chiller capacity for each project, based on the exact calculation of the total refrigeration load capacity. But if you are willing to use the possibility of rule-of-thumb calculations (phase 1) of the required air chiller for residential and office buildings in climatological conditions such as Tehran, you can consider approximately a nominal capacity of 5 tons of refrigeration per 100 square meters of the building.
In ammonia absorption chillers, the main source of energy to create refrigeration is natural gas.
In lithium bromide absorption chillers (capacities above 30 tons of refrigeration) the main source of energy is hot water, warm water, or steam. (except for direct flame absorption chillers, in which the torch with a proper flame is directly installed on it).
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